The five-axis machining center is divided into two types: one is vertical and the other is horizontal.First of all, we will talk about how the vertical five-axis linkage machining center is finished. There are two methods for the anti-rotation axis of the five-axis linkage machining center of fine aluminum alloy parts. One is the anti-rotation axis of the operating table.The operating table set on the bed can be coiled around the X-axis. The boundary is called A axis, and the axis of A is usually the range of operation +30 degrees to -120 degrees.The base of the operating station also has a counter-rotating table, which is coiled around the Z axis in the position shown in the diagram. The boundary is the C axis and the C axis is the 360 degree reversal.In this way, through the combination of A and C axis, the workpiece fixed on the operating table can be processed by the vertical spindle in addition to the bottom surface.The minimum dividing value of A axis and C axis is usually 0.001 degree, so that the workpiece can be divided into the arbitrary point of view, and the inclined plane and inclined hole are processed.A and C axis, such as the end linkage with the XYZ trilinear axis, can be used to produce A messy space surface, which is of course the support of the advanced numerical control system, servo system and software.The advantage of this method is that the structure of the main shaft is simple, the spindle is rigid, and the production cost is low.However, the operating table can not be planned too large, and the bearing capacity is small, especially when the inversion of A axis is greater than or equal to 90 degrees, the workpiece will bring A large bearing moment to the operating table.
The other is the inversion of the vertical spindle head.Spindle front is A counter back, coiling their own Z axis 360 degrees, become C axis, the back also can be coiled on the X axis rotation of A shaft, can reach more than plus or minus 90 degrees, usually the end of the same function.Strengths of this setting method is the main shaft processing is very sensitive, work station can also planning is very big, aircraft, huge huge fuselage casing can be processing on this kind of processing base.This plan has a big advantage: let's when using spherical milling cutter machining surface, when cutting tool base line perpendicular to the surface processing, because of the spherical milling cutter pole linear velocity is zero, the pole will cut out the appearance quality of workpiece is very poor, choose spindle inversion planning, make the main shaft relative to the workpiece around a point of view, the spherical milling cutter cutting to avoid pole, make sure there will be linear velocity, can progress appearance quality.This kind of structure is highly anticipated by the machining of high precision surface of the mold, which is difficult to achieve in the operation table reversal processing base.In order to reach the precision of inversion, advanced reverse rotation is also equipped with circular grating ruler, dividing accuracy within a few seconds, of course, this kind of the reversal of the spindle structure contrast, making capital is higher also.
Vertical five-axis linkage machining center spindle gravity down, bearing the radial force of high-speed empty assignment is equal, reverse characteristic extremely good, thus can progress speed, usually high speed can reach more than 1200 r/min, useful highest speed reached 4000 0 r.The main shaft system is equipped with circulating cooling equipment, and the circulating cooling oil takes the heat from the high speed reversal, and it can be reduced to the appropriate temperature by the chiller, and then it flows back to the main shaft system.X, Y, and Z axes can also be used to respond with a linear grating ruler, and the bidirectional positioning accuracy is within the micron level.Because hurtling into more than 40 ~ 60 m/min to arrive, X, Y, Z axis is chosen mostly ball screw JiDeShi cooling, with the main shaft system, by the by the refrigeration cycle of oil flow through ball screw base, take away heat horizontal five-axis linkage machining center, how does it end fine aluminum alloy parts processing?There are two methods for the anti-rotation axis of this kind of processing base, one is the horizontal spindle swing as a counter-rotating shaft, plus one anti-rotation axis of the operating table, and the five-axis linkage machining is finished.This kind of setting method is simple and sensitive, such as the requirement main axis stand, lie transform, the operation desk needs to divide the position only, can be equipped with the triaxial processing base of the vertical and horizontal transformation.It is very useful for the end of the workpiece to be processed, and the production cost is reduced.Also can be set up to work station CNC axis, minimum degree value of 0.001 degrees, but not as a linkage, "is, lie the transformation of four axis processing base, used to different processing requirements, the price is very competitive.The other is the traditional operation counter rotating shaft, which is set in the bed, and the operating table A shaft normally operates in A range of 20 degrees to -100 degrees.The base of the operating station also has a counter-rotating table B axis, and the B axis can be rotated 360 degrees.This horizontal five-axis machining base has better linkage characteristics than the first method, which is often used to process the chaotic surface of large impeller.The reverse shaft can also be equipped with a round grating scale reaction, which can reach several seconds in accuracy. Of course, the counter-rotating shaft structure is in a disjointed form and the quotation is valuable.The current horizontal five-axis machining center can achieve more than 1.25m2, which has no influence on the first five-axis setting method.However, the second type of five-axis setting method is difficult to compare, because 1.25m2 operation stage is A reversal of the A axis, and it is difficult to connect with the b-axis counter of the operating station base.Horizontal processing base of the spindle speed above 10000 RPM, usually for horizontal setting of main shaft in radial since gravity, bearing high speed when empty radial stress inequality, plus also choose larger BT50 handle, often up to 20000 RPM.Horizontal machining hurtling into the base to reach more than 30 ~ 60 m/min, the spindle motor power 22 - more than 40 kw, dao database is according to the demand can be increased from 40 to 160, processing ability far beyond vertical processing base, usually is the first choice for heavy machinery processing.
Double five-axis linkage machining center can be mostly planning work station communication, when a work station in operation in the epz, another work station in the processing zone replacement artifacts, in preparation for the machining of the next, basis on work station communication performance of moment, from a few seconds to tens of seconds can be finished.Latest planning on the processing base of considering the structure to constitute appropriate modular production unit (FMC), and the flexible production line (FMS), modular production units are usually at least two processing base and four communication work station, processing base all placed side by side, communication work station in front of the machine tool a glyph discharged, communication work station more can be arranged in two rows, and even the bi-level programming.Two each have a workstation as the orientation of the workpiece, other location on the communication work station for processing the workpiece installation, instruction has a car will be in accordance with the system, the communication work station of artifacts into processing base, or removed from the processing base end processing work platform of communication, to the next station or directly to the blanking station, completion of all machining operations.Flexible production line in addition to the car, the exchange work station, there is a consistent tool library, often have several hundred, the cutting tool in cutting tool in the system the identity of the coding information, again through the tool delivery system into processing base, and finish with a tool to retrieve, flexible production line usually demand a FMS controller to command.